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Revista Journal of Latin American Cultural Studies

Journal of Latin American Studies

Revista Journal of politics in Latin America (Internet)

Año: 2015 vol. 47 n. 1

Manzano, Valeria. Sex, Gender and the Making of the ‘Enemy Within’ in Cold War Argentina.  / Sexo, género y la construcción del 'enemigo interno' en la guerra fría en Argentina p. 1-29 Argentina
'enemigo interno'; Argentina; género y sexualidad; modernización; política derechista; terrorismo de estado
Siglo XX


This article studies the unfolding of a broad conservative bloc amidst the politico-cultural battles that took place in Cold War Argentina. Focusing on the unexplored gendered, sexual and generational dimensions of the figure of the ‘enemy within’, the article shows that this figure was at the core of a project which coincided with authoritarian practices emanating from the state and also from segments of civil society. The creation of that figure had significant effects, not only in the political but also in the educational and cultural realms, including the imposition of censorship and the delineation of restrictive sexual policies. Moreover, it conditioned the ways in which political repression developed in the context of 1970s state terrorism.

Carassai, Sebastián. The Dark Side of Social Desire: Violence as Metaphor, Fantasy and Satire in Argentina, 1969–1975.  / El lado oscuro del deseo social: violencia como metáfora, fantasía y sátira en Argentina, 1969-1975 p. 31-63 Argentina
Argentina; años setenta; violencia política; representaciones de la violencia; guerrilla y terrorismo de estado
Siglo XX


The 1970s was the most violent decade of the entire twentieth century for Argentina. Its first half was characterised by the rise of political radicalisation, and its second by the reign of state repression. Studies devoted to investigating the issue of violence in the 1970s have concentrated fundamentally on the protagonists. By contrast, this article offers an analysis of the symbolic terrain, shifting focus from the conscious to the unconscious plane, from the real to the imaginary world. Dealing with visual representations of violence in popular culture, especially advertising in mass-circulation magazines, it explores how violence became naturalised during the first half of the 1970s. In so doing it adds an additional layer to our understanding of the social mood that preceded the military coup of March 1976.

Ben Plotkin, Mariano. US Foundations, Cultural Imperialism and Transnational Misunderstandings: The Case of the Marginality Project.  / Fundaciones de Estados Unidos, imperialismo cultural y malentendidos transnacionales: el caso del Proyecto Marginalidad p. 65-92 Argentina
Argentina; Fundación Ford; sociología; marginalidad; imperialismo cultural
Siglo XX


This article analyses the failure of the Proyecto Marginalidad (Marginality Project), which the Ford Foundation financed in the 1960s, and the political and academic conflicts that it provoked. It takes into consideration the viewpoints of the principal actors involved (the director of the project, the Ford Foundation, and its critics). The original aim of the Marginality Project was to study the conditions of marginality of urban and rural populations in various Latin American countries, but it generated few results. The article shows that this outcome resulted from a series of ‘structural misunderstandings’, due to the fact that the different actors did not share what, in the words of Marc Angenot, might be called ‘social discourse’. In other words, their assumptions about what was thinkable and sayable in the Latin American context in the late 1960s and early 1970s diverged significantly, giving rise to a series of conflicts about the objectives and conduct of the project.

Power, Margaret. Who but a Woman? The Transnational Diffusion of Anti-Communism among Conservative Women in Brazil, Chile and the United States during the Cold War.  / ¿Quién sino una mujer? La difusión transnacional del anticomunismo entre las mujeres conservadoras en Brasil, Chile y Estados Unidos durante la Guerra Fría p. 93-119 Brasil | Chile
Guerra Fría; transnacional; anticomunismo; mujeres; Brasil; Chile; Estados Unidos
Siglo XX


This article examines transnational connections among anti-communist women in Brazil, Chile and the United States from the 1960s to the 1980s. It explores the political beliefs and networks upon which these women drew and built in order to promote their role in the overthrow of João Goulart and Salvador Allende and to encourage other women across the Americas to join them in the fight against communism. This paper shows that these women reversed the flow of ideas, served as models for each other and for anti-communist women, and built gendered transnational networks of female anti-communist activists.

Nunes, Rodrigo M. The Politics of Sentencing Reform in Brazil: Autonomous Bureaucrats, Constrained Politicians and Gradual Policy Change.  / La política de reforma de sentencias en Brasil: burócratas autónomos, políticos constreñidos y política gradual de cambio p. 121-148 Brasil
Brasil; reforma penal; burocracia; política hacia las drogas; cárceles saturadas


Popular attitudes towards crime in Latin America induce local legislators to support harsh sentencing frameworks. What, therefore, explains the adoption of non-prison sentences across the region? Using Brazil as a case study, this article claims that sentencing reform is a consequence of the growing autonomy of bureaucrats who manage the criminal justice system. Insulated from patronage networks and granted broad mandates to pursue solutions to pressing penal crises, these policy elites use their position in the state to develop new rules and facilitate their approval despite popular opposition to measures that limit the state's punitive capacity. The findings point to the importance of bureaucratic autonomy for the enactment of policies that can benefit the underprivileged but do not enjoy widespread support from voters.

Borgh, Chris van der; Savenije, Wim. De-securitising and Re-securitising Gang Policies: The Funes Government and Gangs in El Salvador.  / De-securización y re-securizacíon de las políticas de bandas: El Gobierno Funes y las bandas en El Salvador p. 149-176 El Salvador
El Salvador; pandillas; violencia pandillera; políticas gubernamentales; securización; gobierno de Funes; tregua pandillera


This article analyses the gang policies of the first years of the Funes administration in El Salvador, from June 2009 until July 2012. Using securitisation theory, it explains why the administration returned to an emphasis on extraordinary measures, most of them repressive, to deal with gangs. It argues that these measures were the product of an ongoing and dynamic process in which the government was but one of the players in a complex field constituted by numerous actors. The return to repressive measures as well as the support and facilitation of a ‘gang truce’ were not the result of a rational design or a predetermined agenda, but should be seen as a series of moves in a political conjuncture, in which the Salvadorean government needed to communicate to different audiences messages of being in control.

Journal of Latin American Studies
Papel | Versión digital con suscripción | Trimestral | Reino Unido ISSN versión papel: 0022-216X
ISSN versión digital: 1469-767X
Año de creación: 1969

Editor: Cambridge University Press, Paul Cammack
Dirección: 31 Tavistock Square
London WC1H 9HA

Journal of Latin American Studies presenta investigaciones muy de actualidad en el ámbito de estudios latinoamericanos de órden económico, político, cultural, sociológico, antropológico, geográfico; incluye también con frecuencia artículos sobre tópicos contemporáneos en particular comentarios de especialistas así como una amplia sección de criticas de libros.

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Sistema Regional de Información en Línea para Revistas Científicas de América Latina, el Caribe, España y Portugal. Recurso creado por una red internacional que reune y difunde información bibliográfica sobre las publicaciones científicas seriadas producidas en la región. El "Directorio" recoge las publicaciones académicas y científicas que superan un nivel mínimo de calidad editorial, mientras que en el "Catálogo" ingresan aquellas que alcanzan un nivel óptimo en los criterios de evaluación. REDIAL colabora suministrando información sobre las revistas latinoamericanistas europeas.

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Jussi Pakkasvirta - Ceisal (Helsinki, Finlandia).
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