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CEISAL Consejo Europeo de Investigaciones Sociales de América Latina
Revista Bulletin of Hispanic Studies

Bulletin of Latin American Research

Revista Bulletin of Spanish Studies

Año: 2012 vol. 31 n. 3

Charles, Christopher A.D. Newspaper Representation of the Debates in the 2007 Jamaican General Election Campaign . p. 285-301 Jamaica
Debate / Campaña electoral / Periódicos / Política / Teoría de las representaciones sociales
Siglo XXI

Resumen

This article deconstructs the newspaper representations of three debates held in 2007 during the Jamaican General Election campaign. The theory of social representation is used in this article to explain political behaviour and outcomes. Representations are the images, words, symbols or phrases that are generated from people's dialogic interaction that signify meanings. Content analysis of relevant articles covering the electoral campaign in the main print media in Jamaica forms the empirical basis for study. The majority of representations of the three main debates were negative, revealing that political manifestos were largely ignored and policy funding was not addressed. Significant issues such as crime, education, health, garrison politics, corruption and unemployment were inadequately addressed, and the wider global context of these matters was ignored. The consensus was that the Jamaica Labour Party (JLP) won two of the three debates, notably the leadership debate in which the Leader of the Opposition, Bruce Golding MP, performed more effectively than the then current Prime Minister, Portia Simpson-Miller of the People's National Party (PNP). Social representation theory is used to assess the types of political meanings generated by media coverage during the General Election. It is suggested that the perceived success of the JLP candidates in the main debates was an important contribution to the party's overall electoral victory.

Amaral, Ernesto Friedrich de Lima; Rios-Neto, Eduardo Luiz Gonçalves. Long Term Influences of Age–Education Transition on the Brazilian Labour Market. p. 302-319 Brasil
Transición demográfica / Desarrollo económico / Proyección de ingresos / Transición educativa
Siglo XXI

Resumen

The objective of this study is to estimate the long term mean earnings of the male Brazilian population, taking into account the ageing process of the population and the increase in educational attainment. Using census data, household sample surveys, as well as population and education projections, estimates indicate that an ageing population and an increase in education will have a 2 percent impact on the annual growth of an average income in Brazil by 2050. The challenge for the future is to improve the proportion of the Brazilian population with completed college degrees.

Argueta, Otto. Private Security in Guatemala: Pathway to Its Proliferation . p. 320-335 Guatemala
Empresas privadas de seguridad / Comités de seguridad de barrios / Seguridad pública / Posguerra
Siglo XXI

Resumen

It has become common to explain the proliferation of private security services as causally determined by crime rates and institutional weakness. This article on the contrary argues that other explanatory factors need to be emphasised, especially for post-war societies: institutional trajectories and political processes. The article first presents the present situation of commercial and non-commercial private security services in Guatemala (private security companies as well as security neighbourhood committees). Against this background it reconstructs mechanisms and critical junctures through which the Guatemalan state had sourced out policing functions to the private sector during the war and traces the reinforcement of these mechanisms in post-war society. It argues that the proliferation of private security services is an outcome of the reinforcing of an institutional pattern of public security displacement to the private sphere. The continuity of self-defence and vigilante organisations thereby emerges as a stronger explanatory factor of the proliferation of private security services in post-war societies than their self-explained authorisation through high crime rates.

Valdivieso, Patricio. Policies for Participation, Life in Association and Confidence, Implications in the Case of Chile. p. 336-351 Chile
Participación / Política / Municipios
Siglo XXI

Resumen

In Chile, the structure of the state has become modernised and decentralised, and the municipalities play an important role in this development. As a result, there are expectations of policies for participation that direct the concerns of citizens with respect to public policies at a local level. Similar to other states in Latin America, Chile enjoys policies that could be perfected in an effort to achieve better integration and synergy among them, especially in the municipalities. This article presents arguments and evidence in the case of Chile in respect of mechanisms of participation, associative life and confidence in the municipalities, as well as proposing ways to perfect public policies for local participation.

Gatti, Gabriel. Imposing Identity against Social Catastrophes. The Strategies of (Re)Generation of Meaning of the Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo (Argentina). p. 352-365 Argentina
Herencia familiar / Desaparición forzada / Genética / Identidad / Catástrofe social
Siglo XX | Siglo XXI

Resumen

This article explores the processes of definition, construction and social management of collective identity in situations of social catastrophe such as that defined in the Southern Cone of Latin America following the grave human rights violations that occurred in the 1970s, especially those deriving from the forced disappearance of persons. This form of repression creates deep wounds in the social fabric affected and, besides this, produces what could be called a ‘catastrophe’, that is, a permanent confusion of the mechanisms of social construction of meaning and subjectivity within which one lives. In this case, the catastrophe affects several collective goods and, principally, the social bases of modern identity construction. In order to manage these catastrophes, the subjects that inhabit the social spaces formed around them – in this case those who live in the field of the detained–disappeared – develop very different strategies, with the most widespread in the Argentinean case being what I will call the ‘narrative of meaning’. This is a hard and conservative strategy that confronts the catastrophe of identity by employing identity constructions supported on old narratives of the family and biological heritage. This article is dedicated to an analysis of this socially successfully strategy and studies the form it adopts in the work of constructing identity of the Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo.

Morello, Gustavo. Catholicism(s), State Terrorism and Secularisation in Argentina. p. 366-380 Argentina
Católicos / Desaparecidos / Nacionalismo / Pluralismo / Pobres / Esfera pública / Tortura
Siglo XX

Resumen

The aims of this article are to explore the diversity of Catholic reactions facing state terror in Córdoba, Argentina, during the 1970s and to analyse how different Catholic groups redefined their relations with the State in the public sphere. To do that, I will use case study methodology applied to the kidnapping of an American priest and five seminarians. I will show how religious beliefs shape to some extent how Catholic social actors respond to political events. Different understandings of Catholicism produced different responses to state terror.

Bulletin of Latin American Research
Papel | Versión digital con suscripción | Trimestral | Reino Unido ISSN versión papel: 0261-3050
ISSN versión digital: 1470-9856
Año de creación: 1981

Editor: Society for Latin American Studies
Dirección: University of Liverpool, Room 313a, Cypress Building, L69 7ZR Liverpool

Este Boletín aspira a reflejar una investigación original sobre asuntos corrientes dedicados a América Latina mediante la publicación de largos artículos relacionados con las ciencias sociales y humanas. Se publican artículos más cortos sobre temas de actualidad en lo que atañe el estudio de América Latina, artículos de revista, el progreso de la ciencia, críticas de libros, y notas. Recientemente, una sección « debate » ha sido añadida dedicada a presentar análisis vanguardistas sobre tópicos específicos analizados por especialistas.
Texto completo disponible en Wiley Online Library para los números desde 1995; los anteriores en JSTOR

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