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Revista Bulletin of Hispanic Studies

Bulletin of Latin American Research

Revista Bulletin of Spanish Studies

Año: 2012 vol. 31 n. 2

Centner, Ryan. Techniques of Absence in Participatory Budgeting: Space, Difference and Governmentality across Buenos AiresIn  Joseli Macedo (Ed.) The Urban Divide in Latin America: Challenges and Strategies for Social Inclusion p. 142-159 Argentina
Presupuesto participativo / Democracia deliberativa / Gubernamentalidad espacial / Gestión urbana / Buenos Aires
Siglo XXI

Resumen

Techniques of absence describe some of the potentially anti-deliberative practices that haunt recently widespread participation-based governance schemes. Techniques of absence remove certain kinds of people – on a spatialised basis – from crucial ‘democratic’ conversations. To illustrate these, I use ethnographic accounts from the implementation of a citywide participatory budgeting programme in three neighbourhoods across Buenos Aires, Argentina, modelled after the vaunted budgeting process pioneered in Porto Alegre, Brazil since 1989. I position absencing as part of an emergent urban governmentality related to participation. This allows for an analysis of the Buenos Aires participatory budget across very different areas of the city: Puerto Madero, Abasto, and La Boca. Discussion centres on dynamics of participation and non-participation observed during extensive fieldwork in 2004 and 2005. The research aimed to establish intense co-presence through participant-observation, yet instead yielded an ethnography of absences, entailing analysis of how, why and with what consequences there was lacking participation in this participatory experiment. The phenomenon of absencing points to an emergent governmentality that enables ironically pernicious, territorialised regulation of difference, which must be countered to fulfil the promise of such widespread experiments.

Kapp, Silke; Baltazar, Ana Paula. The Paradox of Participation: A Case Study on Urban Planning in Favelas and a Plea for AutonomyIn  Joseli Macedo (Ed.) The Urban Divide in Latin America: Challenges and Strategies for Social Inclusion p. 160-173 Brasil
Autonomía / Belo Horizonte / Favela / Plan Global Específico / Participación / Planificación urbana
Siglo XX | Siglo XXI

Resumen

The participatory planning method called Plano Global Específico (PGE; Specific Global Plan) has been used in Belo Horizonte, Brazil since 1995 for interventions in favelas (spontaneous settlements). Although the responsible municipal agency describes it optimistically, inhabitants have manifested significant discontent. This article focuses on the reasons for this controversy, analysing the PGE method against the background of Brazilian re-democratisation and Belo Horizonte's public policies for favelas. The article argues that institutionalised participation does not favour the qualitative leap towards citizen control or autonomy, but is essentially attached to heteronomous planning structures.

Marquardt, Kairos. Participatory Security: Citizen Security, Participation, and the Inequities of Citizenship in Urban PeruIn  Joseli Macedo (Ed.) The Urban Divide in Latin America: Challenges and Strategies for Social Inclusion p. 174-189 Perú
Seguridad ciudadana / Participación política / Democracia / Desigualdad / Ayacucho
Siglo XXI

Resumen

This article discusses a model of local governance referred to here as ‘participatory security’, in which citizens are held responsible for maintaining urban security by participating in municipal programmes. I argue that the goals of universal ‘inclusion’ through democratic ‘participation’ are undermined by political ideologies espousing both rights and responsibilities of citizenship. Through ethnographic cases from highland Peru, in which city centre neighbourhoods and peripheral zones are expected to participate in markedly different fashions, I demonstrate how the discourse of responsibilities translates into differential participation and effectively institutionalises the layered imbalances of urban citizenship in new and highly consequential ways.

Wolf, Sonja. El Salvador's Pandilleros Calmados: The Challenges of Contesting Mano Dura through Peer Rehabilitation and EmpowermentIn  Joseli Macedo (Ed.) The Urban Divide in Latin America: Challenges and Strategies for Social Inclusion p. 190-205 América Latina
El Salvador
Bandas callejeras / Control de pandillas / Homies Unidos / Pandilleros calmados
Siglo XXI

Resumen

In 2003, the Government of El Salvador launched Plan Mano Dura to curb urban violence and homicides, most of which had been attributed to street gangs. Domestic non-governmental organisations (NGOs) criticised the measure for its repressive nature and the neglect of the wider policies for prevention and rehabilitation, and sought to promote the implementation of alternative gang control. Drawing on ethnographic research in Homies Unidos-El Salvador – founded and organised by pandilleros calmados (retired gang members) – the article considers how both the socio-political context and organisational characteristics shaped the agency's advocacy strategy and why its efforts remained largely ineffective.

Wade, Jeffry S. The Future of Urban Water Services in Latin America. p. 207-221 América Latina
Servicios urbanos de agua / Privatización / Gestión integrada de recursos hídricos / Desarrollo sostenible
Siglo XXI

Resumen

In recent decades, problems with the provision of drinking water and sanitation services around the world have increasingly been addressed by attempts at privatisation, recasting clean water as an essentially economic, rather than public, good. This approach gained particular acceptance in Latin America, but with limited success. In order to address the full range of social, economic and environmental values necessary to sustain water resources over time, public and governmental involvement in establishing integrated water management, pursuing ‘soft path’ approaches, assuring stakeholder input and setting policy will be essential to the process.

Kruljack, Shani. Public–Private Partnerships in Solid Waste Management: Sustainable Development Strategies for Brazil. p. 222-236 América Latina
Brasil
Desarrollo sostenible / Gestión de residuos / Asociaciones público-privadas
Siglo XX | Siglo XXI

Resumen

An often overlooked issue in the discussion of sustainable development is that of municipal solid waste management. Yet solid waste management is pervasive in all sustainable development objectives: its management, or lack thereof, can have major implications for the health of the environment, economy and society. This article argues the need for a governance dimension in the sustainability model, taking into account implementation strategies, monitoring and institutional controls. This focus heavily relies on integrated public–private partnerships and deliberative democracy approaches in order to achieve sustainability within the solid waste management sector. In this article, national and local policies in Brazil are analysed, primarily focusing on the inclusion of informal waste collection into municipal solid waste management schemes. The city of Curitiba, in the state of Paraná, which is world-renowned for its innovative sustainable development policies, is used to frame and illustrate the case.

Bulletin of Latin American Research
Papel | Versión digital con suscripción | Trimestral | Reino Unido ISSN versión papel: 0261-3050
ISSN versión digital: 1470-9856
Año de creación: 1981

Editor: Society for Latin American Studies
Dirección: University of Liverpool, Room 313a, Cypress Building, L69 7ZR Liverpool

Este Boletín aspira a reflejar una investigación original sobre asuntos corrientes dedicados a América Latina mediante la publicación de largos artículos relacionados con las ciencias sociales y humanas. Se publican artículos más cortos sobre temas de actualidad en lo que atañe el estudio de América Latina, artículos de revista, el progreso de la ciencia, críticas de libros, y notas. Recientemente, una sección « debate » ha sido añadida dedicada a presentar análisis vanguardistas sobre tópicos específicos analizados por especialistas.
Texto completo disponible en Wiley Online Library para los números desde 1995; los anteriores en JSTOR

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