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Revista Bulletin of Hispanic Studies

Bulletin of Latin American Research

Revista Bulletin of Spanish Studies

Año: 2007 vol. 26 n. 2

McSweeney, Kendra; Jokihch, Brad Beyond Rainforests: Urbanisation and Emigration among Lowland Indigenous Societies in Latin America . [Trad. Más Allá de los Bosques Tropicales: Urbanización e Emigración entre las Sociedades Indígenas de las Tierras Bajas en América Latina] p. 159-180 América Latina
Resumen

Indigenous societies across lowland Latin America have recently made impressive political and territorial gains by emphasising their stewardship of and attachment to particular rural landscapes. But surprising new censal and microdemographic evidence shows that these groups have simultaneously been developing a presence in domestic and foreign metropolises. Cities offer employment and advanced education opportunities as well as escape from rural conflicts. We suggest that the dynamics and outcomes of these migrations are distinct from those of other rural Latin Americans. By outlining specific areas in which migration, politics, and territory appear to be interlinked, we seek to stimulate research that engages with these processes and their implications for indigenous advocacy and migration theory.

Williams, Caroline A.  Adaptation and Appropriation on the Colonial Frontier: Indigenous Leadership in the Colombian Chocó, 1670–1808. [Trad. Adaptación e Asignación en la Frontera Colonial: El Liderazgo Indígena en el Chocó Colombiano, 1670-1808] p. 181-199 América del Sur
Colombia
Resumen

This article explores the consequences for the native population of the Colombian Chocó of the emergence, over the course of the eighteenth century, of an elite of caciques and indios mandones or principales whose functions of powers far exceeded those of the warrior chiefs that had traditionally acted as leaders of their people. Appointed for the purpose of facilitating the collection of tribute and the supply of labour to European settlers, caciques and mandones were almost universally rejected by native communities during the early phases of Spanish colonisation (c. 1630–1690), and they disappear from the historical record after Independence. Eighteenth-century sources, however, not only record the existence of a clearly defined elite of mandones or principales in villages across the region, but show these individuals engaging actively with the colonial authorities, on behalf of their communities, at local and audiencia levels. This article argues that, at a time of a much strengthened European presence in the region, caciques and mandones came to understand their roles in ways that were entirely different from those intended by the Spanish, and in so doing acquired the legitimacy that had eluded their seventeenth-century predecessors. Far from serving merely as intermediaries between settlers and indigenous populations, indios mandones acted as negotiators on behalf of the indigenous population, whose task was to defend and/or advance the interests of the communities they had been appointed to control.

Richmond, Douglas W. Africa’s Initial Encounter with Texas: The Significance of Afro-Tejanos in Colonial Tejas, 1528–1821. p. 200-211 México
Esclavitud
Época colonial

Resumen

The topic of African slavery and the role of Afro-Tejanos in Texas during the period of Spanish colonial rule has been totally neglected. Primary sources used in this study discuss Afro-Tejano family life, economic activities, military duties, and their experiences both as slaves and as individuals who gained their freedom. Hispanic treatment of Africans gradually became more enlightened by the eighteenth century to the point that Afro-Tejanos suffered a decline in their overall standard of living after Texas became an independent republic in 1836. The relationship of Afro-Tejanos to Mexico’s current total of 500,000 Afro-Mexicans is an issue of contemporary relevance because of recent efforts in Mexico to highlight its African heritage.

Mora, Frank O Cuba’s Ministry of Interior: The FAR’s Fifth Army . [Trad. El Ministerio del Interior de Cuba: El Quinto Ejercito del FAR] p. 222-237 Caribe
Cuba
Resumen

Since the beginning of the Cuban Revolution, Raúl Castro and his Ministry of the Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR) has sought to maintain at least operational control over state security, i.e., the Ministry of Interior (Minint). Between 1960 and 1989 FAR and Minint competed for resources and for the attention of the Revolution’s supreme leader, Fidel Castro. In 1989 Raúl Castro was finally able to achieve his objective of absorbing Minint’s operational missions, namely domestic security, when, after a series of crises associated with the end of the Cold War, corruption scandals in Minint, and indiscretions by the Minint leadership, Fidel acquiesced and allowed Raúl and FAR to purge Minint and take control of state security.

Gideo, Jasmine Excluded from Health? Informal Workers’ Access to Health Care in Chile. [Trad. ¿Excluidos de la Salud? El Acceso de los Trabajadores Informales a los Servicios de Salud en Chile] p. 238-255 América Latina ; Cono Sur
Chile
Resumen

The Pan American Health Organisation recently highlighted the increased exclusion of low income households in Latin America from health care. The rise in informal employment and sub-contracting of workers means that many employees lack formal contracts and are excluded from health insurance programmes. Feminist research suggests low income women are often most at risk of exclusion. Simultaneously, deeply entrenched inequalities within health systems across the region have not been addressed by health sector reforms. Drawing on the case of Chile, this paper examines the extent to which informal workers have indeed been excluded and how far these processes are gendered.

Millington, Mark Transculturation: Contrapuntal Notes to Critical Orthodoxy. [Trad. Transculturación: Notas de Contrapunto de la Ortodoxia Crítica] p. 256-268 América Latina
Resumen

Transculturation is a frequent point of reference in Latin American cultural studies, but overuse is tending to create a new critical orthodoxy, and inattention to precise definition may be compromising effectiveness. This article assesses current deployments of the term and, through a close reading of the theoretical section of Ortiz’s Contrapunteo cubano, seeks to establish an understanding of what is involved in the cultural and human experience of transculturation. It concludes by examining recent critiques of the term and suggests a sceptical view of the potential for and limits on transculturation in the global context of Latin American cultures.

Gott, Richard Latin America as a White Settler Society. [Trad. América Latina como una Sociedad de Colono Blanco] p. 269-289 América Latina
Resumen

Latin America’s nineteenth century history of Europeanisation, immigration and extermination suggests that the continent should fit neatly into the category of ‘settler colonialism’, a notion usually employed to describe the white settler colonies of European empires other than those of Spain and Portugal. While the last years of empire and the early days of the republics saw efforts to include the indigenous population as citizens, the racist white elites in the century after independence sought to import European migrants to prevent the non-white population from participating in power. The desired ‘whitening’ of the population was rarely successful, but the weight of white immigration helped create a twentieth century society that ignored the indigenous peoples – until the popular explosions of recent years.

Bulletin of Latin American Research
Papel | Versión digital con suscripción | Trimestral | Reino Unido ISSN versión papel: 0261-3050
ISSN versión digital: 1470-9856
Año de creación: 1981

Editor: Society for Latin American Studies
Dirección: University of Liverpool, Room 313a, Cypress Building, L69 7ZR Liverpool

Este Boletín aspira a reflejar una investigación original sobre asuntos corrientes dedicados a América Latina mediante la publicación de largos artículos relacionados con las ciencias sociales y humanas. Se publican artículos más cortos sobre temas de actualidad en lo que atañe el estudio de América Latina, artículos de revista, el progreso de la ciencia, críticas de libros, y notas. Recientemente, una sección « debate » ha sido añadida dedicada a presentar análisis vanguardistas sobre tópicos específicos analizados por especialistas.
Texto completo disponible en Wiley Online Library para los números desde 1995; los anteriores en JSTOR

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