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Revista Bulletin of Hispanic Studies

Bulletin of Latin American Research

Revista Bulletin of Spanish Studies

Año: 2006 vol. 25 n. 1

Morley, Morris; Mcgillion, Chris. Soldiering on: The Reagan Administration and Redemocratisation in Chile, 1983–1986.  / Reconsiderando su posición: la Administración Reagan y la redemocratización en Chile, 1983-1986 p. 1-22 Cono Sur
Chile
Siglo XX
Resumen

This article examines the circumstances in which the Reagan administration began to rethink its support of the Pinochet dictatorship in Chile and shift toward advocating a return to democratic civilian rule. It argues this shift was closely related to calculations that US interests might best be served by severing ties with the incumbent regime, but only so long as two vital interrelated issues were resolved to Washington's satisfaction: the nature of the movement likely to inherit political power, and the survival of key institutions of the autocratic Chilean state. To the extent that the incoming government did not portend a challenge to existing constitutional and economic arrangements, and to the extent that the 'old' military – the perceived ultimate guarantor against any kind of radical transformation – was in a position to survive the transition with its power and prerogatives intact, a 'regime change' could be supported, and even actively promoted. These twin concerns shaped and influenced a US commitment to democracy in Chile that was more contingent than principled, reflected in the constraints US policymakers imposed upon themselves in regard to the types of pressures they were prepared to apply to achieve their preferred outcome.

Burges, Sean W.  Without Sticks or Carrots: Brazilian Leadership in South America During the Cardoso Era, 1992–2003. [Trad. Sin Palos ni Zanahorias: El Liderazgo Brasilero en Sudamérica en la Época de Cardoso, 1992-2003.] p. 23-42 América del Sur
Brasil
Resumen

Throughout the Fernando Henrique Cardoso presidency Brazil actively pursued a South American leadership project. The distinctive and central feature of this policy was its attempt to operate without the coercion or explicit payoffs often associated with 'leading' in mainstream international relations literature. Instead, efforts were devoted to constructing an inclusive project that sought extended and unconscious cooperation from other states through a transfer of 'ownership' of the continental project. An examination of three cases – the 1994 Summit of the Americas, interregionalism and South American infrastructure integration – is used to demonstrate the techniques employed by Brazil as well as to highlight the limitations implicit in the Brazilian leadership strategy.

Koch, Julie  Collectivism or Isolation? Gender Relations in Urban La Paz, Bolivia. [Trad. ¿Colectivismo o Aislamiento? Las Relaciones de Género en las Zonas Urbanas de La Paz, Bolivia ] p. 43-62 América del Sur ; Región Andina
Bolivia
Resumen

Latin American women's extensive collective action outside and inside the household has been paid much attention in the literature over the years. Only a handful of studies have challenged the arguments that Latin American women generally organise together and show solidarity with one another. This paper argues that women's collective action in contemporary urban Bolivia is relatively weak, both outside and within the household. The consequence is that women are isolated to a degree not hitherto recognised, an isolation women cope with in different ways.

Wood, David M. J.  Indigenismo and the Avant-garde: Jorge Sanjinés' Early Films and the National Project . [Trad. Indigenismo y el Avant-garde: La Primeras Películas de Jorge Sanjinés y el Proyecto Nacional] p. 63-82 América del Sur ; Región Andina
Bolivia
Resumen

Jorge Sanjinés' 1960s films Revolución and Ukamau challenge the class and ethnic hierarchies of Bolivian society by casting the proletarian and indigenous masses as revolutionary liberators. The new national imaginary they evoke is tightly bound to the experimental cinematic techniques they employ, since their rejection of rationalist, realist aesthetics signals a partial undermining of the linear time of the modern nation. Ukamau both recalls and resists previous Bolivian indigenismo, which sought to co-opt the Indian into a national mestizo consciousness. Its exoticist portrayal of the Indian ultimately limits its political effectiveness, but textual and contextual analyses show subversive Indian agency leaking through.

Cupples, Julie  Between Maternalism and Feminism: Women in Nicaragua's Counter-Revolutionary Forces. [Trad. Entre Maternalismo y Feminismo: Las Mujeres en las Fuerzas Contrarevolucionarias de Nicaragua] p. 83-103 Centroamérica
Nicaragua
Resumen

To date very little scholarship has focused on the experiences of women who fought or collaborated with Nicaragua's counter-revolutionary forces (known as the Contra) in the 1980s. Based on qualitative research conducted in Waslala, this paper examines the circumstances which led a group of women to become positioned as Contra supporters. It then explores how these women constructed their gender identities in the light of their collaboration with the Contra. It argues that despite their participation in a right-wing political organisation and despite their tendency to draw upon understandings of themselves as mothers, widows and victims of war, these women should not be seen as inherently conservative and reactionary, given that they have also been inspired by forms of political organisation that are indicative of an emergent feminist identity.

Holmes, Jennifer S.; Gutiérrez De Piñeres, Sheila Amin  The Illegal Drug Industry, Violence and the Colombian Economy: A Department Level Analysis. [Trad. La Industria Ilegal de la Droga, Violencia y la Economía Colombiana: Un Análisis al Nivel de los Departamentos] p. 104-118 América del Sur
Colombia
Resumen

Previous research on the Colombian illegal drug trade, which is generally qualitative in approach and focused on the national level, has concluded that the drug industry harms the economy. In order to test out this widespread claim, this article seeks to differentiate between the corrosive economic effects of Colombia's persistently high levels of generalised political violence and the specific consequences of the cocaine trade. It combines historical national level analysis with quantitative department analysis and identifies the economic effects of both paramilitary and guerrilla violence, thereby contributing to a closer examination of the impact of the drugs trade on the economy. The results reveal that paramilitary violence is related positively to exports but negatively to gross domestic product. Guerrilla violence, however, appears to harm exports but, surprisingly, not gross domestic product. Contrary to the conventional wisdom, coca cultivation does not have independent effects on exports or GDP, a conclusion which suggests that Colombia's economic problems stem more from political violence than from the drug trade in itself.

Bulletin of Latin American Research
Papel | Versión digital con suscripción | Trimestral | Reino Unido ISSN versión papel: 0261-3050
ISSN versión digital: 1470-9856
Año de creación: 1981

Editor: Society for Latin American Studies
Dirección: University of Liverpool, Room 313a, Cypress Building, L69 7ZR Liverpool

Este Boletín aspira a reflejar una investigación original sobre asuntos corrientes dedicados a América Latina mediante la publicación de largos artículos relacionados con las ciencias sociales y humanas. Se publican artículos más cortos sobre temas de actualidad en lo que atañe el estudio de América Latina, artículos de revista, el progreso de la ciencia, críticas de libros, y notas. Recientemente, una sección « debate » ha sido añadida dedicada a presentar análisis vanguardistas sobre tópicos específicos analizados por especialistas.
Texto completo disponible en Wiley Online Library para los números desde 1995; los anteriores en JSTOR

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