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Revista Bulletin of Hispanic Studies

Bulletin of Latin American Research

Revista Bulletin of Spanish Studies

Año: 2004 vol. 23 n. 2

William I. Robinson Global Crisis and Latin America. [Trad. Crisis Global e América Latina] p. 135-153 América Latina
Resumen

This essay examines Latin America's experience in the crisis and restructuring of world capitalism from the 1970s into the twenty-first century, with particular emphasis on the neo-liberal model, social conflicts and institutional quagmires that have engulfed the region, and the rise of a new resistance politics. The empirical and analytical sections look at: Latin America's changing profile in the global division of labour; the domination of speculative finance capital; the continued debt crisis, its social effects and political implications; capital–labour restructuring, the spread of informalisation and the new inequality; the passage from social explosions to institutional crises; the new popular electoral politics and the fragility of the neo-liberal state. These issues are approached through the lens of global capitalism theory. This theory sees the turn-of-century global system as a new epoch in the history of world capitalism, emphasising new patterns of power and social polarisation worldwide and such concepts as a transnational accumulation, transnational capitalists and a transnational state. Finally, the essay argues that global capitalism faces a twin crisis in the early twenty-first century, of overaccumulation and of legitimacy, and explores the prospects for social change in Latin America and worldwide.

Taylor, Lucy; Wilson, Fiona  The Messiness of Everyday Life: Exploring Key Themes in Latin American Citizenship Studies Introduction. [Trad. El Desorden de la Vida Diaria: Explorando Temas Claves en la Introducción a Estudios sobre la Ciudadanía en América Latina] p. 154-164 América Latina
Resumen

This section seeks to provide a brief theoretical framework for the study of citizenship in Latin America by focusing on two characteristics which are of relevance to the essays collected here: belonging and political agency. It then goes on to discuss some key themes which emerge from a reading of the collected articles: methodology; civilisation and deviation; citizenship as the organisation of subordinate inclusion; popular ideas of citizenship as 'fairness'; role of public performance in defining political relationships.

Wilson, Fiona  Indian Citizenship and the Discourse of Hygiene/Disease in Nineteenth-Century Peru. [Trad. La Ciudadanía Indígena y el Discurso de la Higiene/Enfermedad en Perú en el Siglo XIX ] p. 165-180 América del Sur
Perú
Resumen

Citizenship had become conflated with 'race' in late nineteenth century Latin America partly on account of the new language of biological science. This article focuses on the contest between rights of belonging and rights of citizenship as played out in a provincial town in Andean Peru during the late nineteenth century. In particular, it explores how by drawing on a discourse of hygiene/disease a provincial elite was able to restrict access to public space in the town and thus deny 'Indians' the possibility of participating as citizens in urban political life.

Rodrigo, Ariadna Acevedo  Struggles for Citizenship? Peasant Negotiation of Schooling in the Sierra Norte de Puebla, Mexico, 1921–1933 . [Trad. ¿Luchas por la Ciudadanía? La Negociación Campesina para la Educación en la Sierra Norte de Puebla, México, 1921-1933] p. 181-197 América del Norte
México
Resumen

This article identifies four different responses to educational policy in peasant villages. Acceptance, appropriation, resistance and opposition to schools are considered as forms of negotiating the educational contract. Peasants contributed to education through legal and customary practices. In return, they sought to influence the terms of schooling. However limited, such influence was possible because the Mexican state had scarce resources and depended on villagers' support. Taking into account the difficulties of peasants' subordinate position, their struggle over schooling is defined as a defence of autonomy rather than an exercise of citizenship.

Foote, Nicola. Rethinking Race, Gender and Citizenship: Black West Indian Women in Costa Rica, c. 1920–1940. p. 198-212 Centroamérica
Costa Rica


Resumen

This article brings Afro-Caribbean women to the fore of a discussion of Costa Rican citizenship. It explores the relationship between ideologies of gender, imageries of black womanhood, and the dialectic of citizenship and exclusion. It examines how the efforts of the black elite to achieve citizenship through assimilation generated inter-class tension which centred on ideas of female morality. It explores the absence of political platforms for poor black women excluded by such strategies and argues that while Costa Rican feminists succeeded in challenging the ideological system of gender they failed to challenge issues of race and class.

Taylor, Lucy  Client-ship and Citizenship in Latin America. [Trad. Ciuda-Cliente y Ciudadanía en América Latina] p. 213-227 América Latina
Resumen

This article explores the development of political relationships between people and politicians since around 1820 in Latin America. In particular, it develops the idea of client-ship as a form of political agency and contrasts it to citizenship, linking both to 'natural' and 'historical' interpretations of inequality. The piece claims that client-ship has dominated political relations and that its twin tools of charisma and votes-for-goods allows it to thrive today in the form of neo-populism. In contrast, citizenship has been thwarted by the efforts of parties which control political agency by imposing norms of intellectual superiority and hierarchies of disdain. Throughout, I argue that issues of race, gender and class are central to political relationships which are the cultural terrain of power, and conclude that parties must begin to take citizens – and citizenship – seriously if they wish to avert a crisis of democracy.

Lazar, Sian. Personalist Politics, Clientelism and Citizenship: Local Elections in El Alto, Bolivia. p. 228-243 América del Sur
Bolivia
Resumen

The article investigates the citizenship practices of urban Aymara in a neighbourhood of El Alto, Bolivia, through an examination of the municipal elections of December 1999. Using ethnographic methods, I focus on the instrumental and affective sides of clientelism, a central feature of Bolivian elections. I argue that clientelism is a part of citizenship practice, a means of engaging with the state in the person of the politician. A majority of the Bolivian population are marginalised from the oligarchic mestizo system of government, as represented by the traditional political parties. However, at local level, and especially during election campaigns, there is more permeability, and this article sees clientelism as a set of strategies through which citizens attempt to make politics, and politicians, more representative and responsive.

Stepputat, Finn. Marching for Progress: Rituals of Citizenship, State and Belonging in a High Andes District. p. 244-259 América del Sur
Perú
Resumen

This article explores processes of citizenship and state formation in the Central Peruvian Andes in the wake of the armed conflict through the lens of a public ritual, the celebration of a district anniversary. The celebration is a reservoir of practices from past forms of state formation and may be read as a claim for recognition as full-blown members of the nation-state. While practices of citizenship as rights are emerging, the celebration is permeated by the association between citizenship and civilization, with discipline playing a major role as an instrument of modernisation and progress.

Bulletin of Latin American Research
Papel | Versión digital con suscripción | Trimestral | Reino Unido ISSN versión papel: 0261-3050
ISSN versión digital: 1470-9856
Año de creación: 1981

Editor: Society for Latin American Studies
Dirección: University of Liverpool, Room 313a, Cypress Building, L69 7ZR Liverpool

Este Boletín aspira a reflejar una investigación original sobre asuntos corrientes dedicados a América Latina mediante la publicación de largos artículos relacionados con las ciencias sociales y humanas. Se publican artículos más cortos sobre temas de actualidad en lo que atañe el estudio de América Latina, artículos de revista, el progreso de la ciencia, críticas de libros, y notas. Recientemente, una sección « debate » ha sido añadida dedicada a presentar análisis vanguardistas sobre tópicos específicos analizados por especialistas.
Texto completo disponible en Wiley Online Library para los números desde 1995; los anteriores en JSTOR

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