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Revista Bulletin of Hispanic Studies

Bulletin of Latin American Research

Revista Bulletin of Spanish Studies

Año: 2000 vol. 19 n. 3

Sieder, Rachel  'Paz, progreso, justicia y honradez': law and citizenship in Alta Verapaz during the regime of Jorge Ubico. [Trad. 'Paz, progreso, justicia y honradez': ley y ciudadanía en Alta Verapaz durante el régimen de Jorge Ubico] p. 283-302 Centroamérica
Guatemala
Resumen

Prospects for the 'rule of law' in the present are shaped by historical experiences of law by elite and non-elite groups in the past. In this article I explore changing conceptions and practices of'rights'and'justice'as expressed in the legal and administrative encounters between indigenous people and state officials during the regime of Jorge Ubico (1931–1944). The extension of the state's coercive and administrative apparatus to remote rural areas, new legislation and changes in public administration transformed relations between working people, coffee fmqueros and the state in Guatemala. This implied new obligations and exactions for Mayans, but also provided them with new opportunities to contest and negotiate their conditions. Indigenous people strategically engaged with the law to contest the terms of their domination by elite actors and to mediate conflicts between themselves. As state ideologies of'moral behaviour'led to increasing regulation of the private sphere, this was particularly important in the case of conflicts over gendered rights and obligations. Although formally excluded from the category of citizens, indigenous people used the official language and discourse of citizenship to further their claims, in turn reshaping Guatemalan nation-state.

Grandin, Greg  Everyday forms of state decomposition: Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, 1954. [Trad. Todas las formas de descomposición del Estado: Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, 1954] p. 303–320 Centroamérica
Guatemala
Resumen

This essay explores how Guatemala's 1952 agrarian reform played out among Quetzalteco K'iche's. Much of the academic writing on the revolution is concerned with the way the agrarian reform affected indigenous communities. These studies either view the reform as creating bitter political conflicts within the community, thereby weakening or destroying local institutions of communal politics and identification, or else they understand the reform as deepening incipient class divisions. In all of these studies,'conflict'is understood to be something antithetical to'community'. Yet conflict is as essential to communal formation as are more visible identity markers, suggesting an intriguing correlation: the greater the degree of communal conflict, the greater the level of communal identification.

Watanabe, John M.  Culturing identities, the state, and national consciousness in late nineteenth-century western Guatemala. [Trad. Cultivando Identidades, el Estado y la conciencia nacional en Guatemala occidental a finales del siglo ] p. 321-340 Centroamérica
Guatemala
Resumen

This paper examines the procedural culture that shaped ethnic and national identities in late nineteenth-century western Guatemala. Rooted in face-to-face encounters between departmental jefes políticos (departmental governors) and local Maya communities, this procedural culture emerged from routines of governance such as annual municipal inspections, ethnic struggles for municipal control, and local efforts to title community lands that led Maya and state officials to develop contrasting understandings of each other and their relations. Far from precipitating a national identity of mutual belonging, state formation here intensified the racism and political violence that would rend Guatemala during the century to come.

Garrard-Burnett, Virginia  Indians are drunks and drunks are Indians: alcohol and indigenismo in Guatemala, 1890–1940. [Trad. Los Indios son borrachos y los borrachos son indios: alcohol e indigenismo en Guatemala, 1890-1940] p. 341-356 Centroamérica
Guatemala
Resumen

This article explores the ways in which the use of alcohol articulated with the discourse of indigenismo in Guatemala between the late 1890s and the late 1930s. In the first decades of the twentieth century, the public language of alcoholism merged with that of indigenismo. By the early 1930s, during presidency of Jorge Ubico (1931–1944), the theoretical conflation of alcoholism and indigenismo was fully evolved, providing a seamless paradigm for those who would place the credited Guatemala's'drunken'and'racially degenerate'indigenous majority with the nation's underdevelopment. The article utilises indigenista literature, newspapers, contemporary legislation and judicial records on the alcohol contraband trade and drunkenness to construct this argument.

Angell, Alan; Pollack, Benny  The Chilean presidential elections of 1999–2000 and democratic consolidation. [Trad. Las elecciones presidenciales chilenas de 1999-2000 y la consolidación de la democracia ] p. 357-378 Cono Sur
Chile
Resumen

This article examines the campaign and the outcome of the presidential elections held in 1999–2000 in Chile. It argues that the election marks a crucial phase in the consolidation of democracy in Chile. It can be seen as the first "normal" election since the return to democracy in 1990. It was unusually competitive and the result was in doubt until the second round vote. The election was notable for its emphasis on the future. Issues of the past were largely ignored - as was the position of General Pinochet in London. The campaign of the Right was based upon an above-party appeal while that of the ruling coalition relied on the traditional weight of parties in Chile. The result can be seen as an endorsement of the policies of the Concertacion government, but it also represented a resurgence of the Right. The victorious candidate, Ricardo Lagos, has stressed his commitment to social justice and to equity - but he faces the problem of a governing coalition with internal differences still to be resolved, and a Right better placed to be a formidable opposition.

Lambert, Peter  A decade of electoral democracy: continuity, change and crisis in Paraguay. [Trad. Una década de democracia electoral: continuidad, cambio y crisis en Paraguay] p. 379–396 Cono Sur
Paraguay
Resumen

In 1989 President Stroessner was overthrown after almost 35 years in power. This led to a process of transition over the following decade which included elections at presidential, congressional, and municipal levels, as well as a democratic constitution, which guaranteed full political and civil liberties. However, the transition has been complicated by the continued prominence of the same political and military forces that supported Stroessner, and that have proved reluctant to withdraw from power. As a result, instead of representing a complete break with an authoritarian past, the transition has combined elements of continuity and change. This has led to a conservative and faltering transition, characterised by frequent political crises and the lack of socio-economic reform. This article analyses the major structural and institutional obstacles to the consolidation of democracy in Paraguay. It then brings the reader up to date, by examining the events of 1998/1999, a period in which Paraguay's transition came under the greatest threat, and which revealed both its greatest strengths and weaknesses.

Aitken, Rob. Mexico in Perspective p. 397-402 México
Montiel, Lenni  Latin American Politics on the Net [Trad. La Política Latinamericana en la Red] p. 432-435 América Latina
Bulletin of Latin American Research
Papel | Versión digital con suscripción | Trimestral | Reino Unido ISSN versión papel: 0261-3050
ISSN versión digital: 1470-9856
Año de creación: 1981

Editor: Society for Latin American Studies
Dirección: University of Liverpool, Room 313a, Cypress Building, L69 7ZR Liverpool

Este Boletín aspira a reflejar una investigación original sobre asuntos corrientes dedicados a América Latina mediante la publicación de largos artículos relacionados con las ciencias sociales y humanas. Se publican artículos más cortos sobre temas de actualidad en lo que atañe el estudio de América Latina, artículos de revista, el progreso de la ciencia, críticas de libros, y notas. Recientemente, una sección « debate » ha sido añadida dedicada a presentar análisis vanguardistas sobre tópicos específicos analizados por especialistas.
Texto completo disponible en Wiley Online Library para los números desde 1995; los anteriores en JSTOR

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