A new situation in the global market, growth of the demand for new agricultural products, as well as diversification of use of rural spaces is bringing benefits and causing problems. There are different ways of changing the image and labor structure of rural areas. Tourism and agribusiness are the most popular solutions. However, not all their forms are friendly to rural social and natural environment. Other non-agricultural activities, such as industry, construction of modern infrastructure, creation of service spaces etc. change not only the landscape but labor structure as well and can be an important factor of social and cultural transformation. Such processes are taking place in many Latin American rural regions and some of their examples are presented in this volume.
El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las relaciones de cooperación y conflicto entre una compañía minera y las comunidades, los nuevos movimientos sociales y los tres niveles de gobierno involucrados. La compañía minera inició operaciones para una mina a cielo abierto de oro y plata con el apoyo de oficiales de los gobiernos locales, estatales y federal. Los habitantes de estas comunidades apoyados por grupos ambientalistas y organizaciones no gubernamentales argumentan que el proyecto contamina las fuentes de agua fresca además de perturbar el medio ambiente y la ecología de la región. La presencia de la compañía minera (MSX) en Cerro de San Pedro ha causado un conflicto social severo entre los habitantes de San Pedro, Soledad y San Luis y ha llamado la atención de todos los que están preocupados por los temas de la herencia histórica, cultural y ambiental. En el centro de la controversia es la tecnología barata y eficiente. Las leyes estatales y federales fueron violadas. Es muy evidente la falta de sensibilidad de las compañías mineras extranjeras hacia las consecuencias de sus actividades en las comunidades y su medio ambiente. Este caso también muestra la falta de negociación entre las empresas, comunidades, los nuevos movimientos sociales y los gobiernos. La información sobre las externalidades y los costos futuros de la compañía son cruciales pero más cruciales es la formulación e implementación de políticas más sensitivas para evitar daño al medio ambiente, la biodiversidad y la salud de le población. Las instituciones del gobierno deben estar conscientes de que sus decisiones pueden afectar la calidad de vida de las comunidades de las generaciones actuales y futuras sólo por un pequeño incremento en el crecimiento económico y un gran incremento en los beneficios privados de los pequeños grupos de inversionistas. Ciudadanos más informados tienden a ser más activos en las protestas, tales como el caso de los estudiantes en San Luis. El contacto entre individuos informados de diversos grupos de organizaciones ayudan a intercambiar experiencias y crean opinión pública en favor de las movilizaciones. La participación comunitaria y el involucramiento en la toma de decisiones del desarrollo de la planeación comunitaria es demasiado limitada por la falta de información crítica. Este hecho es crítico cuando el gobierno local puede proveer el derecho a la información porque hay otros intereses afectando el proceso.
This study investigated nine rural properties from the south half of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, looking for their potentialities, as well differentiate these properties that practice agrotourism from those that practice rural tourism though owners interviews. The beginning of the tourist activities at the rural properties occurred at Lavras do Sul in 1993. Most properties are located at Campanha and center-south part of the State. The smallest property has 787 ha and the biggest has 2100 ha; all data indicate a certain balance of gender as administrator and owner of the properties. The properties’ sons and daughters have graduation in areas other than agrosciences. Other interesting data is that children use to visit the property three times a year at maximum. Hidding a horse was the preferred activity by the guests at the investigated properties. Hunting is a very restricted practice because of the severe inspection by the Environmental Brazilian Institute – IBAMA. There is a strong consciousness about each specie allowed hunting period and species preservation from rural properties owners. Among the main reasons why the property owners decided for agro-tourism/rural-tourism, are the economic ones, among them increase profit. Most of the guests stay for one or two nights and return to the rural property one or twice a year. At the investigated properties there is a predominance of agrotourism against rural tourism. Finally, this study showed that the rural man continues at the field, without loosing his rural characteristics, mainly because of the domain of agrotourism at the investigated properties.
In the last years many rural territories in Mexico have been affected by the process of globalization. The case study presented in this article has been conducted in the part north of the State of Mexico. The study area includes 15 municipalities. The aim of the research is to analyze the process of transformation of this predominantly rural areas through the “underground growth of the factory activities” and to link this phenomenon with all kinds of pressures imposed into local area by the process of globalization.
At present there are millions of people in the world who forging their own alternatives for social and political organization, including a diverse portfolio of productive activities, to promote new mechanisms for developing relationships among themselves and with the capitalist market. This article explores the theoretical implications of this alternative approach and illustrates them with several case studies that have been implemented in Mexico and are being evaluated in other parts of Latin America. The theoretical base for this work is the systematization of non-capitalist (or post-capitalist) forms of economic and socio-political organization for resource allocation and local governance that make possible the (re)distribution of resources within the participating societies to achieve the goals established as part of these alternatives.
Mexico is immersed in processes of change of great relevance for the rural life. As opposed to these challenges, the challenge is centered in the capacities of each local and regional scope to absorb to the interior of its territories and positive way these changes, which are impelled by internal and international factors. These rural territories incorporate an important economy non agriculturist who demands near 40% of the rural manual labor and half of the entrance of her settlers. Before it, the possibility of promoting new institutional and organizationally dimensions requires to a great extent to confront of determined way pure social and economic problems in the rural territories and derived by the unequal terms from interchange that have favored, in most of the cases, to the urban surroundings in its damage. The conceptualization of the rural development and the reaches that have the public policies that today are undertaken to their favor, pass through diversity of approaches and applications with a common denominator: to sobredetermine the proportions on any other aspect the sectorial character. In front of this model it is considered that the strategies and actions to make the rural life excellent require to focus attention on an effort to combine an approach of multidimensional rural development from the vision of the territory; one that promotes a proactive life institutional in benefit of rural means like a whole and of the activities that in their interior are developed. In this approach, therefore the necessity is reinforced to impel processes of support to the agricultural and cattle activities that are basic of the integration of the rural world, next to the activities non agriculturists who appear today like emergent and complementary processes; but, mainly, it is postulated to put in center of the attention the impulse to strategies of territorial planning that consider to own places (and the rural population that inhabits them), like subjects of action of these policies of planning
In this report we will describe the state of Sonora. It's located in the northwest of Mexico and it is contiguous with the State of Arizona, U.S.A. Our interest is to focus on the activities that land workers (ejidatarios) have carried out rural areas, activities that we describe as multifunctional. We focus on villages that the chiltepín (a sort of a very hot regional chili) and branches (to hold the growing vineyard) were collected. At the some time cattle raising (activity subsidized by the state) became a form of earning. In this rural areas (ejidos o angostura) an agriculture method name mahuechi was practiced. Mahuechi (grubbing felling and burning). Mining was also practiced for awhile and supported by a company that later closed. With a lot of effort the habitants in this areas grew orchards next to their homes from which they took and used different products. Extra earnings were also obtained as paid workers. Different activities help them to survive. One can observe that in the study area the land workers (ejidatarios) supported by the state could cope with their activities.
Multifunctionality is a new model of development aimed at generating economic diversification in rural areas, since agriculture plays an increasingly minor role in economies. Whereas in the EU, this model represents a conflictive reality fuelled by the successive reforms of the CAP, in Latin America, rural multifunctionality will never be anything other than an unachievable myth, unless the structural secular problems of its agricultural world are first resolved.
The work that we present here has like antecedent a series of investigations that are being made in the Ravine System formed by the Calderón River and the River San Jerónimo, specifically in the rural community of Progreso Hidalgo, in the Villa Guerrero municipality, to the south of the State of Mexico. This region has been selected after a series of visits from field to the place with different specialists (JUAN P. 2003, CANALES V. 2005) to mention some, that come developing diverse works, from the geographic, anthropological and environmental perspective. Idea to approach this thematic arises after to observe conditions in that is the zone of the ravines, as well as handling empirical that makes the settlers of their resources, as much of which they are to the interior of ravines like used in the agricultural zone and the town, in a process of extremely interesting interaction.
In world-wide the scientific context, the treatment of the rural areas presents diverse forms of analyses. For Latin America the last decades the countryside have undergone transformations product of diverse processes, which has caused among the geographers of the region, a methodologic theoretical reconstruction for its boarding from the geographic discipline. When approaching the analysis of this geographic perspective from the rural one in Latin American, we can recover through the historiography of the last Encounter of Geographers of Latin America, a mink from the point of view of the participant investigators of these events. From this perspective, the intention of the communication is to offer the tendencies of the Latin American geographic thought in the analysis of the rural approach, considering the paradigms, their disciplinary directions and their methodologic approaches thematic.
Editor: Universidad de Varsovia
Dirección: Facultad de Geografía y Estudios Regionales
Universidad de Varsovia
Krakowskie Przedmiescie 30
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