A new situation in the global market, growth of the demand for new agricultural products, as well as diversification of use of rural spaces is bringing benefits and causing problems. There are different ways of changing the image and labor structure of rural areas. Tourism and agribusiness are the most popular solutions. However, not all their forms are friendly to rural social and natural environment. Other non-agricultural activities, such as industry, construction of modern infrastructure, creation of service spaces etc. change not only the landscape but labor structure as well and can be an important factor of social and cultural transformation. Such processes are taking place in many Latin American rural regions and some of their examples are presented in this volume.