The purpose of this study is to examine a corpus of novels taking place in Tierra del Fuego with the Indians and the British as subjects and to perform a comparative analysis of the representation of identity, understood as difference (Grimson, 2000) and shared experience (Grimson, 2003). The corpus consists of Fuegia by Eduardo Belgrano Rawson, 1991; El fueguino: Jemmy Button y los suyos by Arnoldo Canclini, 1998; La tierra del fuego by Sylvia Iparraguirre, 1998; Inglaterra, una fábula by Leopoldo Brizuela, 1999, and El silencio de Darwin by Gustavo Daniel Perednik, 2006. All these novels are rewritings of a group of foundational texts (Garramuño, 1997: 12), among which Pigafetta’s (c. 1524), Fitzroy’s (1839) and Darwin’s (1845) are found. The study focuses, first, on the analysis of how the constitutive elements of Americanity (Quijano y Wallerstein, 1992) are rewritten in the novels, and, secondly, on the relationship between these rewritten elements and the question of an Argentine identity as well as of the identity of the modern global subject. The conclusion is that the novels, except for Canclini’s (1998), depart from the traditional representation of the British and the Indians, thus marking a difference with respect to the foundational texts they rewrite. As for the question of national identity and that of global identity, we find that in these novels the character of the Indian can be interpreted as a metaphor for the Argentine people, particularly concerning its recent history, since the shared experience of situations of confrontations between the State and the nation is a component of Argentine identity. Moreover, we believe that the Indians can also be seen as metaphors of those sectors of the society which are left outside the benefits of the global world today.