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CEISAL European Council for Social Research on Latin America
Review HIB: Revista de Historia Iberoamericana

Hispanic Research Journal

Review HispanismeS

Year: 2006 vol. 7 n. 1

Davies, Catherine. Unequal States: Gender in Latin American Independence / Estados desiguales: género en la independencia latinoamericana p. 3-10 América Latina
Siglo XIX

Miller, Nicola. The 'Immoral' Educator: Race, Gender and Citizenship in Simón Rodríguez's Programme for Popular Education.  / El educador 'inmoral': raza, género y ciudadanía en el programa de Simón Rodríguez para la educación popular p. 11-20 Venezuela
Siglo XIX | Siglo XVIII

Summary

The work of Simón Rodríguez (1769–1854), tutor to Simón Bolívar, is here analysed for insight into issues of race, gender and citizenship in Spanish America from the late eighteenth to the mid-nineteenth centuries as refracted through debates on education policy. It will be argued that Rodríguez's writings and his experiences as an educator embody the manifold social tensions of the post-independence period, both the radical potential and the conservative actuality of the republican experiments.

Chambers, Sarah C. Masculine Virtues and Feminine Passions: Gender and Race in the Republicanism of Simón Bolívar.  / Virtudes masculinas y pasiones femeninas: género y raza en el republicanismo de Simón Bolívar p. 21-40 Venezuela
Siglo XIX

Summary

This article explores how gender and race infused meanings of the key concepts of virtue and passion in the writings of Simón Bolívar (1783–1830). Even when coding dangerous passions as feminine, Bolívar was chiefly concerned with masculinity. Influenced by European moral philosophy, he believed that the passions of vengeance, jealousy, and ambition, which held sway over weak civilian politicians and ambitious men of colour, gave rise to political factions that threatened national order. His solution was to inculcate republican morality in the citizenry through institutions such as a hereditary senate, a moral power, or a chamber of censors. Such political ideas and models of masculinity, rooted in classical republicanism, differed from liberalism's faith that if men were free to pursue their economic interests, the passions would neutralize each other. Although Bolívar's most radical proposals were not enacted, his moralizing goals were widely shared and shaped Spanish American political traditions.

Brown, Matthew. Soldier Heroes and the Colombian Wars of Independence.  / Héroes soldados y las Guerras de la Independencia de Colombia p. 41-56 Colombia
Siglo XIX

Summary

This paper explores the characteristics, expectations and motivations of the soldier heroes who came to epitomize new republican values during the Wars of Independence in Gran Colombia (comprising the present-day republics of Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Panama). Looking back before the mythologizing of the 'cult of Bolívar' and the 'padres de la patria', the paper examines the actual processes and characteristics of life on campaign, in barracks and in battle. It uses the case of foreign adventurers, seven thousand of whom served in the Colombian armed forces, to draw out comparative themes for the military and navy as a whole. It explores the ways that masculinity was constructed around military experience and prowess, moving away from the generations-old colonial focus on honour, purity of blood and lineage. During the flux of the Wars of Independence, honour and masculinity were re-conceptualized around military rank, facial hair, horse-riding and sexual prowess.

Auza, Néstor Tomás. La condición social de la mujer rioplatense de la Revolución de Mayo a la Organización Nacional 1810-1860 . p. 57-69 Argentina
Siglo XIX

Summary

Las mujeres educadas de la media clase y las que pertenecen a las clases más pudientes emergen en la escena pública en el Río de la Plata a partir de las invasiones inglesas de 1806 y 1807. La cultura masculina hegemónica no cuestiona su participación en la educación primaria, la beneficencia y las organizaciones religiosas. En los primeros decenios las mujeres aceptan la esfera que se les ha reservado. La prolongación de la cultura dominante masculina hace que la notable generación de 1837 no le asigne a la mujer un papel en los nuevos proyectos de nación, y en la prensa la mujer no tiene voz propia hasta 1829 y 1830. Durante la dictadura de Rosas el proceso emergente femenino es detenido aún más. Es sólo a partir de 1852 y durante los años sesenta cuando las escritoras dan origen a un feminismo cultural que es la punta de lanza para que la mujer conquiste otras posiciones.

Lavrin, Asunción. Spanish American Women, 1790–1850: The Challenge of Remembering.  / Mujeres hispanoamericanas, 1790-1850: el desafío de recordar p. 71-84 América Latina
Siglo XIX | Siglo XVIII

Summary

This article will survey the contribution made by the most recent historiography on Spanish American women in the period 1790 to 1850 and, in the light of this, examine two works written by women in the 1840s that represent self-perception and the social expectations of women in that decade. These are the diaries written by María Martínez de Nisser, from what today is Colombia, and Agustina Palacio de Libarona, from Argentina. These texts provide insight into the thoughts and motivations of men and women caught up in the political struggles of the first half of the nineteenth century.

Brewster, Claire. Gendering Latin American Independence: Database and Image Bank / Género en la independencia latinoamericana: base de datos y banco de imágenes p. 85-93 América Latina
Siglo XIX

Hispanic Research Journal
Paper | Numerical version with subscription | 5 números al año desde 2007 | United Kingdom Print ISSN: 1468-2737
Online ISSN: 1745-820X
Year of creation: 2000

Publisher: Department of Iberian and Latin American Studies at Queen Mary

Promueve y difunde la investigación de las culturas de la Península Ibérica y América Latina, desde la Edad Media hasta la actualidad. Los campos cubiertos incluyen la literatura y la teoría literaria, la historia cultural y los estudios culturales, el lenguaje y la lingüística, y estudios de cine y teatro. Publica artículos en cuatro idiomas, español, portugués, catalán, e inglés, y alienta, sobre todo a través de su sección de características, el debate y la interacción entre investigadores de todo el mundo que están trabajando en estos campos.
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