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Review HIB: Revista de Historia Iberoamericana

Hispanic Research Journal

Review HispanismeS

Year: 2003 vol. 4 n. 2

Read, Malcolm K. From Feudalism to Capitalism: Ideologies of Slavery in the Spanish American Empire.  / Del feudalismo al capitalismo: ideologías de la esclavitud en el Imperio americano español p. 151-171 América Latina
Esclavitud / economía colonial / Imperio español
Época colonial


It is commonly claimed that racism is both deeply embedded in European culture and, alternatively, found only belatedly, in modern social formations. Both views fail to locate the exact nature of racism insofar as they are insufficiently attentive to the historicity of the relevant categories, notably that of 'slavery'. The latter is always an ideological, historically localized notion, which is secreted by prevailing relations of production that are themselves subject to change (in accordance with the over-all functioning of a social formation). Thus, the Aristotelian notion of the natural slave, together with its converse, the Greek notion of eleutheria or liberty, undergoes a novel twist in the transition from Antiquity to the Middle Ages, when the notion of slavery to the passions and subsequently to sin is formulated. At the same time, the dominant ideological opposition is transformed, from that between the master and his slave to that between the serf (servant) and his lord/Lord. The aim of the present article is to demonstrate how these traditions continue to function under the Spanish Empire, and how they change in response to new economic and political pressures. The feudal dichotomy, it is argued, remains dominant throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, in the form of a substantialist ideology, according to which all things (including slaves) gravitate towards their 'natural' place. In the first part of the sixteenth century, substantialism is challenged by an emergent animist ideology, secreted by mercantilist relations of production and opposed to slavery on the grounds of the innate, inalienable freedom of the 'beautiful soul' or proto-subject, ultimately the freedom of the individual to sell his or her labour power.

Freire, Alípio. A revolução da Semana de Arte Moderna de 1922p. 173-180 Brasil
Arte cotemporáneo / modernismo / Semana de Arte Moderno, São Paulo 1922

Hispanic Research Journal
Paper | Numerical version with subscription | 5 números al año desde 2007 | United Kingdom Print ISSN: 1468-2737
Online ISSN: 1745-820X
Year of creation: 2000

Publisher: Department of Iberian and Latin American Studies at Queen Mary

Promueve y difunde la investigación de las culturas de la Península Ibérica y América Latina, desde la Edad Media hasta la actualidad. Los campos cubiertos incluyen la literatura y la teoría literaria, la historia cultural y los estudios culturales, el lenguaje y la lingüística, y estudios de cine y teatro. Publica artículos en cuatro idiomas, español, portugués, catalán, e inglés, y alienta, sobre todo a través de su sección de características, el debate y la interacción entre investigadores de todo el mundo que están trabajando en estos campos.
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