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Review Borealis. An International Journal of Hispanic Linguistics

Brasiliana - Journal for Brazilian Studies

Review Brasilien Aktuell : Informationen auf Wirtschaft, Politik und Kultur

Year: 2015 vol. 3 n. 2

Duarte Villa, Rafael; Rodrigues, Thiago; Breitenbauch, Henrik (eds.). Brazilian Participation in United Nations Peacekeeping OperationsBrasil

Uziel, Eduardo; Vargas, João Augusto Costa. Twenty Years Wandering (But Not in the Desert): Brazil’s 1967-1989 absence from UN peacekeepingIn  Brazilian Participation in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations p. 6-31 Brasil
Brasil; misiones de paz; Naciones Unidas

Summary

Since the early 1990s, Brazilian officials have often underlined the country’s role as a traditional contributor of troops to peacekeeping operations, beginning with participation in UNEF I, in 1957. However, for the two decades from 1967 to 1989, Brazil did not take part in peacekeeping – a particularly puzzling absence given that this was a period of increased Brazilian activism at the UN, including in international security issues. This article suggests that one of the main reasons for Brazil’s withdrawal was concern regarding the excessive role of the great powers in controlling these operations. From 1967 to 1977, Brazil participated in the attempt to stop the Security Council from consolidating its control over these operations, seeking thereby to reduce their vulnerability to great power manipulation. In 1977, it desisted from this endeavor, and returned to peacekeeping only in 1989, by which time Brazil, the world, and peacekeeping had all changed significantly.

Saliba, Aziz Tuffi; Lopes, Dawisson Belém; Vieira, Pedro. Brazil's Rendition of the 'Responsibility to Protect' Doctrine: Promising or Stillborn Diplomatic Proposal?In  Brazilian Participation in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations p. 32-55 Brasil
Brasil - R2P - RwP - política exterior - operaciones de paz

Summary

Brazil has actively participated in the debate around the ‘Responsibility to Protect’ (R2P) doctrine. More recently, Brazil has even proposed what it believes to be a new approach—the ‘Responsibility while Protecting’ (RwP) corollary to R2P. By launching its own rendition for R2P, Brazil has attempted to reinforce the role of the UN Security Council in two different ways: First, in restricting the use of force on the grounds of ‘Responsibility to Protect,’ which, according to Brazilian diplomatic reasoning, would hinge upon a multilateral assessment of the situation — a condition expected to considerably diminish the arbitrariness in decision making with respect to the use of force. Second, Brazil aimed to highlight the necessity of reform in the UNSC, since, from a Brazilian viewpoint, the decisions of this organ must be representative in order to discharge new tasks assigned to it. Notwithstanding, Brazil's diplomatic proposal has arguably failed to gain massive support from the countries that compose the UN Security Council political establishment and seems now to be forgotten. This paper aims to provide an account on the Brazilian reaction to “Responsibility to Protect” and its first consequences.

Araújo, Wemblley Lucena de. A Diplomacia Brasileira no Conselho de Segurança da ONU: discussões políticas sobre as operações de paz da ONU no Estado haitianoIn  Brazilian Participation in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations p. 56-86 Brasil | Haití
Diplomacia Brasileña. Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU. Operaciones de Paz. Estado Haitiano

Summary

O presente trabalho objetiva discutir o papel da diplomacia brasileira no Conselho de Segurança das Nações Unidas (CSNU) sobre as operações de paz no Estado haitiano. Os conflitos internos e a instabilidade política haitiana tornaram-se uma ameaça à segurança regional e consequentemente, no meio internacional. Amplamente discutido no âmbito do CSNU, a crise no Haiti passou a fazer parte da política externa de diversos Estados nacionais presentes naquele organismo. O Brasil, na qualidade de membro eletivo do CSNU, em suas participações, exerceu significativas contribuições para o processo de construção da paz no país caribenho. Diante do exposto e utilizando-se de uma metodologia analítico-qualitativa, o objetivo deste trabalho reside em discutir o papel da diplomacia brasileira no CSNU em face das operações de paz no Estado haitiano. Percebe-se, portanto, que o Brasil cosoante com seus interesses e princípios tradicionais, exerceu significativas contribuições nas discussões políticas-diplomáticas no CSNU para a reconstrução do Estado haitiano.

Napoleão, Thomaz Alexandre Mayer; Kalil, Mariana Alves da Cunha. Stabilization as the securitization of Peacebuilding? The experience of Brazil and MINUSTAH in HaitiIn  Brazilian Participation in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations p. 87-112 Brasil | Haití
Estabilización; Política exterior brasileña; proceso de paz; Haití; MINUSTAH

Summary

The acknowledgement that many vulnerable societies relapse into violence in the aftermath of the withdrawal of peacekeeping operations has underscored the imperative of developing sustainable exit strategies. Stabilization has hence emerged as a possible means to promote short-term security while avoiding direct political responsibility over complex crises, but the meaning of the term and its consequences remain disputed. The aim of this contribution is to examine the conceptual, academic and diplomatic debate over the concept of stabilization in peace operations by addressing the case of the United Nations Mission for the Stabilization of Haiti (MINUSTAH), and Brazil’s multidimensional role in it.

Aguilar, Sergio Luiz Cruz. A Participação do Brasil nas Operações de Paz: passado, presente e futuroIn  Brazilian Participation in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations p. 113-141 Brasil
Brasil; Operaciones de paz; Seguridad internacional; Naciones Unidas

Summary

O Brasil tem um histórico de 66 anos de participação em operações de paz e missões políticas especiais da Organização das Nações Unidas e de missões de assistência da Organização dos Estados Americanos (OEA), além da Missão de Observadores Militares Equador-Peru, para as quais enviou observadores militares, policiais, peritos eleitorais, especialistas em saúde, civis e tropas armadas. O presente artigo apresenta como se deu a participação brasileira nas operações de paz, qual a situação atual da presença brasileira nas missões em andamento e discute as motivações e os desafios para o país em relação às tendências dessas missões.

Harig, Christoph. Synergy effects between MINUSTAH and public security in BrazilIn  Brazilian Participation in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations p. 142-168 Brasil
Seguridad pública; Fuerzas Armadas; Pacificación; Brasil

Summary

This article assesses the complex relationship between UN Peace Operations and public security in Brazil. It shows that there are obvious similarities at an operational level between military actions in MINUSTAH and Rio´s Pacification, which arguably result in reciprocal learning processes among troops. With the establishment of dedicated training centres and a considerable amount of practical experience in missions that differ significantly from combat-orientated warfare, soldiers are becoming increasingly familiar with police tasks. Considering the extension of the legal framework for allowing domestic military actions, I argue that this “police-ization of the military” (Dunlap, 1999, p. 222) is probably more significant for internal “Guaranteeing Law and Order” (GLO) missions than for further Brazilian participations in Peace Operations.

Souza, Graziene Carneiro de. MONUSCO: a atuação brasileira em operações de paz robustasIn  Brazilian Participation in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations p. 169-196 Brasil
MONUSCO, participación brasileña, capacidad militar

Summary

The Resolution 2098 of the UN Security Council (UNSC) of March 28th 2013 authorized with originality, the creation of a Force Intervention Brigade to work in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Although the appointed Brazilian General to command MONUSCO does not operate as an official representative of Brazil but instead as an UN official, this action reinforces the interest of Brazil on UN peace operations. Stressing the Brazilian efforts to win a seat as a permanent member of the UNSC and considering its participation since 1956, in 47 UN peacekeeping missions, this article questions the Brazilian’s intention and capacity to be active in robust operations.

Andersen, Mads Damgaard. Narrating the Mensalão Case : Configurations of Corruption. p. 197-234 Brasil
Corrupción; Media; Mensalão; Teoría narrativa; Revueltas

Summary

Coming to a close in the last days of 2012, the trial of the so-called mensalão network was heralded as Brazil's trial of the century. Involving corruption in the top ranks of the business world and the former government, the process ended with an exceptional result in the sense that severe sentences were meted out to 25 of the 38 defendants, thereby breaking an established pattern of impunity for corrupt politicians in Brazilian courts. As a scandal potentially harmful for the governing party and the former president Luis “Lula” da Silva, the eyes and spotlights of the national media were fixed on the trial. However, the varying and contested ways in which the case was presented by media from the outbreak of the scandal in 2005 until the end of the trial bears witness to the fact that narratives concerning corruption scandals can potentially encompass a broad range of political and social actors besides those on trial. Viewing corruption as the thematic focus of the media texts, this wider scope of enquiry into the mensalão affair allows us to see that media, political actors and institutions use cases of corruption for much more than mere condemnation of transgressions: The narratives constructed in the Brazilian media reflect but also produce a series of salient political and social developments in the nation's self-imagination and political arena.

Cepaluni, Gabriel. Reforming Institutions from Inside: Federalism and Inequality in Brazil. p. 235-263 Brasil

Summary

Some authors argue that the federal system in Brazil leads to economic inequality. Nevertheless, there are federations with low levels of inequality, such as Canada, Australia and Germany. Using the Brazilian case as an example, we argue that this can be partly explained by the rules of intergovernmental transfers and taxation of the federation. I propose a typological theory of inter-jurisdictional transfers: inequality reducing transfers; transfers that maintain the status quo or are ambiguous; and inequality producing transfers. Gradual changes in these federal rules allowed Brazil to cease being the country of growing levels of inequality of the 60s and 70s and to become a country that drastically reduced inequality in the 2000s. I emphasize that many intergovernmental transfer reforms, especially regarding taxation, are in need to keep Brazil on the same path.

Deagle, Joanna Emily. Land Regularisation in Vidigal, Rio de Janeiro - Was de Soto right?. p. 264-296 Brasil
Regularización de tierras; Hernando de Soto; derechos de propiedad

Summary

Based largely on economist, Hernando de Soto’s, work many developing countries have implemented programmes of formalisation of property in order to unleash capital located within informal settlements and to promote wider economic growth. Although many authors have illustrated that legalised property alone does not necessarily lead to these economic advantages, Brazil’s government has sought to create other mechanisms that should help the production of such benefits. For this reason, this paper, drawn from my Masters dissertation, explores land regularisation in the informal settlement, Vidigal, in Rio de Janeiro. It aims to understand the economic impact of land regularisation in Vidigal and if the benefits of legalised property, proposed by de Soto, have actually materialised there. By looking at one community, it hopes to highlight some of the shortcomings of the programme that still persist, which should be considered during the design and implementation of future programmes.

Quandt, Christiane. Efeitos do medial em A guerra dos bastardos (2007) de Ana Paula Maia. p. 297-320 Brasil

Summary

Uma das novas vozes que se fazem ouvir na atualidade é a da escritora carioca Ana Paula Maia. Já com cinco livors e trabalhos cinematográficos e teatrais, sua literatura vai ao encontro das diferentes mídias, seja filme, televisão, rádio ou música e imagem. Essas intermidialidades se mostram em A guerra dos bastardos de forma múltipla. Tanto imagens fotográficas e cinematográficas, quanto música e vozes transmitidas pelo rádio, desempenham um papel chave. Frente à natureza do texto, que revela as vontades e os desejos mais miseráveis dentro de uma esfera social totalmente corrupta, esses outros meios cumprem várias funções, desde uma saída momentânea do dia a dia repleto de crime e droga até uma ilustração reforçante da situação tensa e violenta. Ou será que se trata de um recurso irônico que relativiza a crua violência rotineira? Neste artigo, pretendo buscar respostas a essas perguntas, analisando mais de perto para as diversas formas pelas quais os outros mídias entram em A guerra dos bastardos de Ana Paula Maia.

Stacul, Juan Filipe; Gonçalves, Gracia Regina. Men in transit: The spectrum of masculinity in Caio Fernando Abreu’s White Limit (1970). p. 321-336 Brasil
Subjetividad; Género; Masculinidad; Literatura brasileña

Summary

In the present work, we aim at discussing the construction of subjectivity in relation to gender categories, especially in regards to male identity, in Caio Fernando Abreu’s first novel White Limit (Original title: Limite branco, 1970). We believe that the protagonist’s process of aging, alongside with his subject’s formation, in the narrative, takes us to face a fluidity, which puts at stake the notions of what is taken for granted as appropriate for the individual. Studies on the displacement of the contemporary subject, Gender Studies, and on men's studies in particular, will serve as the theoretical apparatus for the discussions raised here.

Brasiliana - Journal for Brazilian Studies
Free numerical version | Semestral | Denmark Online ISSN: 2245-4373
Year of creation: 2012

Publisher: Aarhus University
Address: Department of Aesthetics and Communication - Aarhus University
Jens Chr. Skous Vej 2, Bygn 1484 - 639
8000 - Aarhus - DK

Publicación dedicada a los Estudios Brasileños, abierta a investigadores de las diferentes disciplinas de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales.

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