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Simposio 1644: "Corporatist States and Ideas in Europe and Latin America: Counter- and Pro-Mobilisation, Catholicism and Transfer (Austria, Portugal, Brazil and Argentina in the 1930s and 40s)" - ICA 2012

Convocatoria | Austria - Viena
Hasta el 31 de agosto de 2011
Simposio 1644: "Corporatist States and Ideas in Europe and Latin America: Counter- and Pro-Mobilisation, Catholicism and Transfer (Austria, Portugal, Brazil and Argentina in the 1930s and 40s)" - ICA 2012

Simposio para el 54 Congreso Internacional de Americanistas, (Viena, 2012): Corporatist States and Ideas in Europe and Latin America: Counter- and Pro-Mobilisation, Catholicism and Transfer (Austria, Portugal, Brazil and Argentina in the 1930s and 40s).

Coordinadores: Botz Gerhard (Institut für Zeitgeschichte); Costa Pinto, Antonio (University of Lisbon, Portugal).

Convocan a los interesados a enviar sus propuestas de ponencias (título, resumen de entre 1.000 a 2.000 caracteres, 3 a 5 palabras clave, nombre del ponente, grado académico e institución de adscripción) a los coordinadores antes del 31 de agosto de 2011.

Además, para formalizar la presentación de la propuesta de ponencia será indispensable enviarla utilizando el formulario en línea en la página del ICA.

Breve fundamentación del simposio: Even if corporatism did not become the dominant political force of the 20 th century as Romanian intellectual and politician Michael Manoilesco predicted in 1934, it was certainly one of the significant ideological factors in right-wing conservative politics in the 1930s and 1940s. Although these decades were overshadowed and dominated by Fascism and Nazism, corporatist concepts of society and models of states represented an element in or an alternative to fascist regimes per se as were unfolding in Italy and Germany . Everywhere corporatism became allied with more or less cruel, top-down authoritarian dictatorships, opposing liberal democracy and any kind of Marxism, and trying more or less to reconcile capitalism, traditionalist farmers and class-conscious workers in one Christian universalist ideal. Generally speaking, this makes corporatism (possibly) fit into models of societies in the process of economic and social modernisation and political mobilization passing through crises and phases of contrary tendencies, and shows how corporatist states tried to achieve some kind of adaptive counter- and/or partial pro-mobilisation. These traditionalist/reac tionary characteristics of regimes that had to deal with dynamic societal/political forces working against them prevailed in many regions of post-World War I Europe as well as in several states in South America . From a macro-historical perspective, corporatism appears as an attempted third way out of situations seriously endangering the political position or rule of explicitly Christian parties, conservative classes (landed owners and farmers) and (aristocratic) elites in traditional Catholic political cultures. Clearly derived from romantic and social Catholicism of the late 19 th century and never totally vanishing from the programmatic ideas of most Christian Social parties in Europe , corporatism was resurrected in the 1920s and received real boosts from Mussolini’s “Carta del Lavoro” (1927) and the “Quadragesimo Anno” encyclical in 1931. In an accentuated Catholic manner, corporatism strongly influenced Dollfuss’ Austria and Salazar’s Portugal , and fell on fertile ground in Spain and other Catholic countries in Europe . At the same time, it constituted – in addition to Fascism – one important current of corporatist influence in Latin America , particularly in Vargas’ Brazil and Argentina before and under Perón. In the so-called New World , corporatism adapted to different societal and political contexts and needs, and made clear that it was not solely a European phenomenon but also one of other continents. Until now, historians have often put corporative ideas and “corporatist states” into the same “box” as the fascisms or the authoritarian rule being propagated at the same time, or, as has recently been the case, into the category of “para-fascism” (R.Giffin). In current research on these anti-democratic phenomena, there appears a strong tendency that turns away from long-practiced stereotyping and instead emphasizes differentiation, hybridization and change over time. The five cases of corporatism discussed in this symposium will give participants the opportunity to test these actual historiographic trends, show possibilities of comparison from historians and political scientists perspectives, and bring out further questions about transfers of ideas and political concepts in a transcontinental field. Moreover, the papers presented can raise another central question of the whole research field the issue of how and to what extent corporatist ideas and rules adapted partially to other contemporaneous phenomena as exhibited by the Austrian, Portuguese and Spanish cases which perseverated different impacts of Fascism and Nazism. The latter two also manifested influences from the re-strengthening of democracy on the global scene after World War II. This fundamental change of the context of corporatist ideas in Argentina since 1943 and in Perónism might also shed new light on other cases of corporatist states in Europe.

Ceisal Redial © REDIAL & CEISAL. Responsabilidad editorial: Araceli García Martín - AECID (Madrid, España),
Jussi Pakkasvirta - Ceisal (Helsinki, Finlandia).
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